Diabetes Treatment


Diabetes in people is either due to total lack of insulin (type 1 diabetes) or low amounts of insulin or ineffective use of insulin (type 2 diabetes).

Type 1 diabetes (formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes) a condition where the body’s immune system destroys the cells that release insulin, eventually eliminating insulin production from the body. Without insulin, cells cannot absorb sugar (glucose), which they need to produce energy.

Type 2 diabetes (formerly called adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent diabetes) develops at any age. It most commonly becomes apparent during adulthood. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority of people who have diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the body isn’t able to use insulin the right way. This is called insulin resistance. As type 2 diabetes gets worse, the pancreas may make less and less insulin. This is called insulin deficiency.

What causes type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes occurs when your immune system fights the infection, attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is caused by genes and environmental factors, such as viruses, that might trigger the disease.

What causes type 2 diabetes?

Overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity

Being physically inactive, overweight or obese results in Type 2 diabetes. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance with type 2 diabetes. Belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease.

Insulin resistance

Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition where muscle, liver, and fat cells do not consume insulin well. As a result, your body needs more insulin to help glucose enter cells. As a result the pancreas makes more insulin to keep up with the added demand. Over time, the pancreas gets to a stage where insulin it can’t produce enough insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.

Insulin resistance

Hormones produced by the placenta contribute to insulin resistance, which occurs in all women during late pregnancy. Most pregnant women can produce enough insulin to overcome insulin resistance, but some cannot. Gestational diabetes occurs when the pancreas can’t make enough insulin.

Type 2 diabetes, extra weight is linked to gestational diabetes. Women who are overweight or obese may already have insulin resistance when they become pregnant.

Hormonal diseases

Some hormonal diseases can cause insulin resistance and diabetes.

Cushing’s syndrome occurs when the body produces too much cortisol—often called the “stress hormone.”
Acromegaly occurs when the body produces too much growth hormone.
Hyperthyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone.

Damage to or removal of the pancreas

Beta cells may cause pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, and trauma or make the beta cells less able to produce insulin, resulting in diabetes. If the damaged pancreas is removed, diabetes will occur due to the loss of the beta cells.

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

Symptoms of diabetes include:

Increased thirst and urination
Sores that do not heal
Numbness or tingling in the feet or hands
Blurred vision
Increased hunger
Unexplained weight loss
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